Gray, Elisha

SUBJECT AREA: Telecommunications
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b. 2 August 1835 Barnesville, Ohio, USA
d. 21 January 1901 Newtonville, Massachusetts, USA
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American inventor who was only just beaten by Alexander Graham Bell in the race for the first telephone patent.
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Initially apprenticed to a carpenter, Gray soon showed an interest in chemistry, but he eventually studied electrical engineering at Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, in the late 1850s. In 1869 he founded the Western Electric Manufacturing Company, where he devised an electric-needle annunciator for use in hotels and lifts and carried out experimental work aimed at the development of a means of distant-speech communication. After successful realization of a liquid-based microphone and public demonstrations of a receiver using a metal diaphragm, on 14 February 1876 he deposited a caveat of intention to file a patent claim within three months for the invention of the telephone, only to learn that Alexander Graham Bell had filed a full patent claim only three hours earlier on the same day. Following litigation, the patent was eventually awarded to Bell. In 1880 Gray was appointed Professor of Dynamic Electricity at Oberlin College, but he appears to have retained his business interests since in 1891 he was both a member of the firm of Gray and Barton and electrician to his old firm, Western Electric. Subsequently, in 1895, he invented the TelAutograph, a form of remote-writing telegraph, or facsimile, capable of operating over short distances. The system used a transmitter in which the x and y movements of a writing stylus were coupled to a pair of variable resistors. In turn, these were connected by two telegraph wires to a pair of receiving coils, which were used to control the position of a pen on a sheet of paper, thus replicating the movement of the original stylus.
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Bibliography
1878, Experimental Research in Electro-Harmonic Telegraph and Telephony, 1867–76.
Further Reading
J.Munro, 1891, Heroes of the Telegraph.
D.A.Hounshill, 1975, "Elisha Gray and the telephone. On the disadvantage of being an expert", Technology and Culture 16:133.
—1976, "Bell and Gray. Contrast in style, politics and etiquette", Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 64:1,305.
International Telecommunications Union, 1965, From Semaphore to Satellite, Geneva.
KF

Biographical history of technology. - Taylor & Francis e-Librar. . 2005.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Gray, Elisha — ▪ American inventor born Aug. 2, 1835, Barnesville, Ohio, U.S. died Jan. 21, 1901, Newtonville, Mass.  U.S. inventor and contestant with Alexander Graham Bell (Bell, Alexander Graham) in a famous legal battle over the invention of the telephone.… …   Universalium

  • Gray, Elisha — ► (1835 1901) Físico e inventor estadounidense. Fue el inventor del teleautógrafo para transmitir la escritura …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Elisha Gray — (* 2. August 1835 in Barnesville, Ohio; † 21. Januar 1901 in Newtonville, Massachusetts) war ein US amerikanischer Lehrer, Erfinder und Unternehmer. Gray verlor bereits im Alter vo …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Elisha Gray — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Gray. Elisha Gray, 1835 1901 Elisha Gray, né le 2 août 1835 à Barnesville …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Gray — ► sustantivo masculino MEDICINA Unidad de dosis absorbida durante una irradiación de rayos ionizantes. * * * gray. (De S. Gray, 1666 1736, físico inglés). m. Fís. Unidad de dosis absorbida de radiación ionizante del Sistema Internacional,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Elisha Gray — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Elisha Gray Inventor del teléfono y el telégrafo musical …   Wikipedia Español

  • Elisha — (v. hebr. Elischa) ist ein Vorname. Weibliche Namensträger Elisha Cuthbert (* 1982), kanadische Schauspielerin Männliche Namensträger Elisha Abas (* 1971), israelischer Pianist Elisha Cook (1903 1995), US amerikanischer Schauspieler Elisha Graves …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Gray (surname) — Gray is a surname usually of Scottish origin, and may refer to many people.Also, there are many people in Ireland with the last name Gray that are not of Ulster Scot heritage. It can be an anglicanized version of of the native Irish MagRaith… …   Wikipedia

  • Gray (Familienname) — Gray ist ein englischer Familienname. Herkunft Der Name stammt überwiegend aus Schottland, z. T. auch Irland, und hat offenbar nichts mit grey „grau“ zu tun. Varianten Grey (Familienname) (nur scheinbar verwandt) Bekannte Namensträger… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Gray — puede referirse a: Contenido 1 Apellido 1.1 Personajes 1.1.1 Botánicos[1] 2 Divisiones administrativas …   Wikipedia Español

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